• Brachytherapy - Brachytherapy is an advanced cancer treatment. Radioactive seeds or sources are placed in or near the tumor itself, giving a high radiation dose to the tumor while reducing the radiation exposure in the surrounding healthy tissues. The term "brachy" is Greek for short distance. Brachytherapy is radiation therapy given at a short distance: localized, precise, and high-tech.
  • Image-guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) - Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is the use of imaging during radiation therapy to improve the precision and accuracy of treatment delivery. IGRT is used to treat tumors in areas of the body that move, such as the lungs. Radiation therapy machines are equipped with imaging technology to allow your doctor to image the tumor before and during treatment. By comparing these images to the reference images taken during simulation, the patient’s position and/or the radiation beams may be adjusted to more precisely target the radiation dose to the tumor.
  • Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) - IMRT uses linear accelerators to safely and painlessly deliver precise radiation doses to a tumor while minimizing the dose to surrounding normal tissue. Your radiation oncologist will speak with you to determine whether IMRT is the most appropriate treatment for you. If so, your doctor will perform a physical exam and use CT scanning to conduct a treatment simulation session. Other imaging procedures may be used to help determine the exact shape and location of your tumor, and a special device may be created to help you maintain the same exact position during each treatment.
  • Laser Surgery - Laser surgery is surgery using a laser (instead of a scalpel) to cut tissue. Examples include the use of a laser scalpel in otherwise conventional surgery, and soft-tissue laser surgery, in which the laser beam vaporizes soft tissue with high water content. Laser resurfacing is a technique in which covalent bonds of a material are dissolved by a laser.
  • Minimally Invasive Procedures - Minimally-invasive surgery refers to surgical techniques that limit the size of incisions needed and so lessens wound healing time, associated pain and risk of infection. An endovascular aneurysm repair as an example of minimally-invasive surgery is much less invasive in that it involves much smaller incisions, than the corresponding open surgery procedure of open aortic surgery.
  • Robotic Surgery - Robotic surgery, or robot-assisted surgery, allows doctors to perform many types of complex procedures with more precision, flexibility and control than is possible with conventional techniques. Robotic surgery is usually associated with minimally invasive surgery - procedures performed through tiny incisions. It is also sometimes used in certain traditional open surgical procedures.


  • Aortic Root Surgery - Aortic root surgery is a complex surgical procedure to treat a dilation or enlargement (aortic aneurysm) of a section of the large blood vessel that carries blood from your heart to your vital organs (aorta). The aortic root is located near the junction of your aorta and your heart. Doctors perform aortic root surgery to prevent an aneurysm rupture or a tear in the inner layer of the wall of the dilated aorta (aortic dissection), and to prevent the dilated aorta from stretching the attached aortic valve. Aortic aneurysms near the aortic root may be associated with Marfan syndrome and other heart conditions.
  • Atrial Fibrillation Surgery - Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a form of arrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat, in which the atria (the two small upper chambers of the heart) quiver instead of beating effectively. It is one of the most common forms of cardiac arrhythmia, affecting 0.4% of the general population and 5 to 10% of persons over 65 years of age. In addition, AF occurs in as many as 50% of patients undergoing cardiac operations. Surgery is required for this.
  • Bypass Surgery - A surgical procedure to restore normal blood supply to the heart by creating new routes for the blood to travel into the heart when one or both of the coronary arteries have become clogged or obstructed (possibly due to atherosclerosis).
  • Congenital Heart Surgery - Congenital heart defect corrective surgery fixes or treats a heart defect that a child is born with. A baby born with one or more heart defects has congenital heart disease. Surgery is needed if the defect could harm the child's health or well-being.
  • Heart Failure Surgery - Your heart cannot pump normally, and this can lead to heart failure. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery involves the use of a blood vessel graft to bypass one or more blocked coronary arteries. The bypass restores normal blood flow to the heart muscle.
  • Heart Transplants - A heart transplant is surgery to remove a person's diseased heart and replace it with a healthy heart from a deceased donor. Most heart transplants are done on patients who have end-stage heart failure. Heart failure is a condition in which the heart is damaged or weak.
  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Surgery - Septal myectomy is available only in medical centers that specialize in the treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Septal ablation. In septal ablation, a small portion of the thickened heart muscle is destroyed by injecting alcohol through a long, thin tube (catheter) into the artery supplying blood to that area.
  • Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery - In minimally invasive heart surgery, heart (cardiac) surgeons perform heart surgery through small incisions in the right side of your chest, as an alternative to open heart surgery. Surgeons operate between the ribs and don't split the breastbone (sternotomy), which results in less pain and a quicker recovery for most people. In minimally invasive surgery, your heart surgeon has a better view of some parts of your heart than in open heart surgery. As in open surgery, minimally invasive heart surgery requires stopping your heart temporarily and diverting blood flow from your heart using a heart-lung machine.
  • Open Heart Surgery - Open heart surgery is any surgery in which the chest is opened and surgery is done on the heart muscle, valves, arteries, or other parts of the heart (such as the aorta). The term "open" means that the chest is "cut" open.
  • Paediatric Cardiac Surgery - Heart surgery in children is done to repair heart defects a child is born with (congenital heart defects) and heart diseases a child gets after birth that need surgery.
  • Valve Surgery - Heart valve surgery is a procedure to treat heart valve disease. In heart valve disease, at least one of the four heart valves that keep blood flowing in the correct direction through your heart doesn't function properly. In heart valve surgery, your surgeon repairs or replaces the affected heart valves.

Cosmetic Surgeries

  • Breast Surgery
    • Breast reduction surgery - Reduction mammoplasty (also breast reduction and reduction mammaplasty) is the plastic surgery procedure for reducing the size of large breasts. In a breast reduction surgery for re-establishing a functional bust that is proportionate to the woman's body, the critical corrective consideration is the tissue viability of the nipple-areola complex (NAC), to ensure the functional sensitivity and lactational capability of the breasts.
    • Augmentation mammoplasty - Breast augmentation and augmentation mammoplasty (colloquially known as a "boob job" ) are plastic surgery terms for the breast-implant and the fat-graft mammoplasty approaches used to increase the size, change the shape, and alter the texture of the breasts of a woman.
    • Mastectomy - Mastectomy (from Greek "breast" and "cutting out") is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts , partially or completely. A mastectomy is usually carried out to treat breast cancer. In some cases, people believed to be at high risk of breast cancer have the operation prophylactically , that is, as a preventive measure.
    • Lumpectomy - Lumpectomy (sometimes known as a tylectomy) is a surgical removal of a discrete portion or "lump" of breast , usually in the treatment of malignant tumor or breast cancer. Breast-conserving surgery , a less radical cancer surgery than mastectomy
    • Mastopexy, or breast lift surgery Surgical breast biopsy - Mastopexy (Greek μαστός mastos “breast” + -pēxiā “affix”) is the plastic surgery procedure for raising sagging breasts upon the chest of the woman; by correcting and modifying the size, contour, and elevation of the breasts.
  • Microdochectomy (removal of a lactiferous duct) - Microdochectomy is a standard treatment of in case there is nipple discharge which stems from a single duct. There are preliminary indications that if ductoscopy and close follow-up are performed, in some cases microdochectomy may not be necessary despite bloody nipple discharge.
  • Cheek Augmentation - Cheek augmentation is a cosmetic surgical procedure that is intended to emphasize the cheeks on a person's face. To augment the cheeks, a plastic surgeon may place a solid implant over the cheekbone. Injections with the patients' own fat or a soft tissue filler, like Restylane, are also popular. Rarely, various cuts to the zygomatic bone (cheekbone) may be performed. Cheek augmentation is commonly combined with other procedures, such as a face lift or chin augmentation.
  • Chemical Peel A chemical peel is a body treatment technique used to improve and smooth the texture of the skin, often facial skin, using a chemical solution that causes the dead skin to slough off and eventually peel off.
  • Chin Augmentation - Chin augmentation is surgery to reshape or enhance the size of the chin. It may be done either by inserting an implant or by moving or reshaping bones.
  • Facial Implants - Facial implants are used to enhance certain features of the face. The surgery may be elective, or needed as the result of prior surgery on the face. Through a facial implant, an oral and maxillofacial plastic surgeon can aesthetically improve facial contours. They can improve proportion and profiles and correct imbalance caused by injury or hereditary traits.

    The most common implants include:

    • Lower jaw implant - The implant is placed inside of the lower lip . The incision site will be secured with sutures that will dissolve in about one week.
    • Cheek Implants - The implant is placed internally through upper lip or externally via the lower eyelid. Sutures will vary depending on whether they're internal or external.
    • Chin implant - The implant is placed internally to the lower lip, or under the chin. As with the cheek implant, sutures will vary depending on whether they're internal or external.
    • Paranasal Implants - This augmentation procedure is a surgical procedure to permanently fill-in the depressed furrows from the side of the nose to the corners of the mouth and to thicken the paranasal region. A specially designed implant material is inserted into a small incision inside the mouth.
    • Hair Transplantation - Hair transplantation is a surgical technique that moves hair follicles from a part of the body called the 'donor site' to a bald or balding part of the body known as the 'recipient site'. It is primarily used to treat male pattern baldness.
  • Laser Hair Removal - Laser hair removal is one of the most commonly done cosmetic procedures. It beams highly concentrated light into hair follicles. Pigment in the follicles absorb the light. That destroys the hair.
  • Liposuction - Liposuction is a type of cosmetic surgery that removes fat from the human body in an attempt to change its shape.
  • Non-Surgical Skin Tightening - Find a Skin Care Specialist near You. Laser skin tightening is a minimally invasive treatment to consider if you'd like to tighten loose or sagging skin and reduce the appearance of wrinkles on your face, neck, and body.
  • Nose Reshaping - Rhinoplasty or Nose reshaping enhances facial harmony and the proportions of your nose. It can also correct impaired breathing caused by structural defects in the nose.
  • Rhinoplasty surgery can change:
    • Nose size in relation to facial balance.
    • Nose width at the bridge or in the size and position of the nostrils.
    • Nose profile with visible humps or depressions on the bridge.
    • Nasal tip that is enlarged or bulbous, drooping, upturned or hooked.
    • Nostrils that are large, wide, or upturned.
    • Nasal asymmetry
  • Tummy Tuck - Abdominoplasty (commonly known as a tummy tuck) removes excess skin and fat around the stomach while tightening the abdominal wall. This surgery is often performed after pregnancy or weight loss, when the skin has become stretched or saggy. A new belly button may need to be surgically created by an umbilicoplasty. Liposuction may also be performed.


In-Vitro Fertilization is used when infertility is caused by blocked Fallopian tubes, or where infertility is unexplained. It may also be used where there are certain problems with ovulation or a combination of factors causing infertility. IVF involves taking fertility medicines to stimulate the ovaries to make more eggs than usual. When the eggs have formed, a small operation is needed extract them. Each egg is mixed with sperm. This is obtained either from the male partner or from a donor. The egg/sperm mixture is left for a few days in a laboratory dish. The aim is for sperm to fertilise the eggs to form embryos. However certain other surgical treatments are often utilized too:

  • Therapy for Female Infertility - If disease of the fallopian tubes is the cause of infertility, surgery can repair the tubes or remove blockages in the tubes. Surgery to remove patches of unnatural growth in the uterus can double the chances for pregnancy.
  • Therapy for Male Infertility - If the sperm are blocked by an abnormality in the tube inside the scrotum that is used to store sperm in the testicle, surgery may help. A condition where there are blockages in veins of the testes can be repaired via surgery too.


  • Hip Replacement - During hip replacement, a surgeon removes the damaged sections of your hip joint and replaces them with parts usually constructed of metal and very hard plastic. This artificial joint (prosthesis) helps reduce pain and improve function. Also called total hip arthroplasty, hip replacement surgery may be an option for you if your hip pain interferes with daily activities and more-conservative treatments haven't helped. Arthritis damage is the most common reason to need hip replacement.
  • Joint Replacement of The Hand - Joint replacement surgery involves replacing a destroyed joint with an artificial joint. In the case of joint replacement in the hand, the new joint is most commonly composed of silicone rubber or the patient's own tissues such as a portion of tendon.
  • Joint Replacement Surgery - Rheumatoid arthritis can damage joints so severely that they no longer function properly. If your joint function becomes unacceptable, particularly if the joint is causing you pain even at rest, your doctor might suggest joint replacement. Joint replacement involves removing the damaged portions of a joint and replacing them with devices made of metal and plastic. Hips and knees are the most commonly replaced joints. Other joints that may be damaged by rheumatoid arthritis include the shoulder, elbow, wrist, ankle and hand.
  • Knee Replacement - When you have a total knee replacement, the surgeon removes damaged cartilage and bone from the surface of your knee joint and replaces them with a man-made surface of metal and plastic. In a partial knee replacement, the surgeon only replaces one part of your knee joint.
  • Shoulder Replacement - Shoulder replacement is surgery to replace the bones of the shoulder joint with artificial joint parts.

Spine Surgery

  • ALIF (Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion) - An interbody fusion is a type of spinal fusion that involves removing the intervertebral disk. This type of fusion can be performed using different approaches. For example, the surgeon can access the spine through incisions in the lower back or through incisions in the side. In an anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), the surgeon approaches the lower back from the front through an incision in the abdomen.
  • Anterior Cervical Discectomy - Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a surgical procedure to treat nerve root or spinal cord compression by decompressing the spinal cord and nerve roots of the cervical spine with a discectomy in order to stabilize the corresponding vertebrae.
  • Bone Grafting - A bone graft is a surgical procedure used to fix problems with bones or joints. Bone grafting , or transplanting of bone tissue, is beneficial in fixing bones that are damaged from trauma, or problem joints. It's also useful for growing bone around an implanted device, such as a total knee replacement.
  • Disc Replacement - Artificial disk replacement is a newer surgical procedure for relieving low back pain. Similar to hip or knee joint replacements, a disk replacement substitutes a mechanical device for an intervertebral disk in the spine. The device is meant to restore motion to the spine by replacing the worn, degenerated disk.
  • Discectomy - Surgical removal of the whole or a part of an intervertebral disc is called Discectomy.
  • Endoscopic Surgery - Endoscopic surgery uses scopes going through small incisions or natural body openings in order to diagnose and treat disease. Another popular term is minimally invasive surgery (MIS), which emphasizes that diagnosis and treatments can be done with reduced body cavity invasion.
  • Kyphoplasty - The goals of a kyphoplasty surgical procedure are designed to stop the pain caused by a spinal fracture, to stabilize the bone, and to restore some or all of the lost vertebral body height due to the compression fracture.
  • Laminectomy - a surgical operation to remove the back of one or more vertebrae, usually to give access to the spinal cord or to relieve pressure on nerves.
  • Laminoplasty - Cervical laminoplasty is a surgical technique that removex pressure from the spinal cord in then neck. Pressure on the spinal cord can be due to various causes including degenerative changes, arthritis, bone spurs, disc herniations, OPLL, tumors, or fractures.
  • Laminotomy - A laminotomy is an orthopaedic neurosurgical procedure that removes part of a lamina of the vertebral arch in order to decompress the corresponding spinal cord and/or spinal nerve root.
  • Spinal Fusion - Spinal fusion is major surgery, usually lasting several hours. There are different methods of spinal fusion. Bone is taken from the pelvic bone or from a bone bank. The bone is used to make a bridge between vertebrae that are next to each other. This bone graft helps new bone grow.


  • Bone Marrow Transplants - The bone marrow transplants is actually the transfusion of hematopoietic (blood creating) cells from the donor to the receiver. Hematopoietic cells are removed from a person and infused into another person (allogeneic method) or into the same person at a later time after the diseased cells have been removed (autologous method). Allogeneic transplant donors may be related (usually a closely matched sibling or family member) or un-related, wherein a closely matched donor is found through the channel of hospitals.
  • Heart Transplants - A heart transplant, or a cardiac transplant, is a surgical transplant procedure performed on patients with end-stage heart failure or in case of severe heart damage/disease. A working heart from a recently deceased organ donor is accepted and implanted into the patient. The patient's own heart is either completely removed or, less commonly, a part of it is left in place to support the donor heart.
  • Kidney Transplants - Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage renal disease or kidney damage. Kidney transplantation is typically classified as either of two: as a deceased-donor transplant or a living-donor transplantation depending on the source of the donor organ. Living-donor renal transplants are further characterised as genetically related or non-related transplants, depending on whether a biological relationship exists between the donor and recipient.
  • Liver Transplants - Liver transplantation is surgery to remove a diseased or injured liver and replace it with a healthy whole liver or a segment of a liver from another person, called a donor. A successful liver transplant is a life-saving treatment for people with liver failure, a condition in which the liver no longer works as it should.

Dental Surgeries

  • Dental Surgeries and Implants - Dental surgery is any of a number of medical procedures that involve artificially modifying dentition; in other words, surgery of the teeth and jaw bones.

Some of the more common are:

  • Endodontic (surgery involving the pulp or root of the tooth)
  • Prosthodontics (dental prosthetics i.e. devising artificial tooth etc.)
  • Orthodontic treatment (treatments related to skeletal structure around the oral cavity and mal-positioned teeth and jaws)
  • Extraction (removal of diseased or problematic tooth)
  • Periodontics (deals with the diseases of the tooth supporting structures)
  • Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (treating the entire anatomical area of the mouth, jaws, face, skull, as well as associated structures)

Also Implants are a popular method which is a procedure in which a titanium implant is surgically placed in the bone, allowed to heal, and 4–6 months later an artificial tooth is connected to the implant by cement or retained by a screw.

Bariatric and Metabolic Surgeries

  • Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band - A laparoscopic adjustable gastric band, commonly called a lap-band, A band, or LAGB, is an inflatable silicon device placed around the top portion of the stomach to treat obesity, intended to slow consumption of food and thus reduce the amount of food consumed. Adjustable gastric band surgery is an example of bariatric surgery designed for obese patients.
  • Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass - A gastric bypass is a surgical procedure designed to support an obese patient with weight control. This surgery involves creating a small stomach pouch from the existing stomach (by stapling shut the rest of the stomach) and attaching it directly to the small intestine. This decreases the amount of food one must intake to feel satisfied and thus aiding the patients with extreme obesity.
  • Sleeve Gastrectomy - Sleeve Gastrectomy is a surgical weight-loss procedure in which the stomach is reduced to about 15% of its original size, by surgical removal of a large portion of the stomach along the greater curvature. The result is a sleeve or tube like structure. The procedure permanently reduces the size of the stomach, although there could be some dilatation of the stomach later on in life. The procedure is generally performed laparoscopically and is irreversible.


  • Aneurysms – A bulging blood vessel in the brain that’s at risk of rupturing or tearing open i.e., an aneurysms can be repaired via a surgical procedure. Neural Aneurysms can be treated mainly via two main types of surgeries: by Neurosurgical Clipping (operating through the skull to clip up the bulging blood vessel) or by Endovascular Coiling (sealing off the aneurysms from main artery with platinum coils).
  • Intervention Neurology - Interventional neurology is a specialty that utilizes minimally invasive surgeries and image guided techniques to treat many of the most complex and dangerous diseases of the brain, neck, and spine.
  • Malignant and Non Malignant Brain Tumours - Surgical treatment of brain tumours is generally the primary cure procedure utilized worldwide. The tumour may either be Malignant (cancerous and may spread to surrounding organs and tissue) in which case the whole or a part of the tumorous region is surgically removed ; or Non Malignant (non-cancerous) requiring minor surgeries to restrict further growth of the tumour.
  • Paediatric Neurosurgery - The Paediatric Neurosurgery specializes in the evaluation and treatment of children with a range of neurosurgical disorders, such as brain tumours, spasticity, movement disorders, intractable epilepsy, head injuries, and split spine, as well as other cranial malformations and spinal deformities.
  • Skull Base Surgery - Skull base surgery is done to remove both benign and cancerous growths, and abnormalities on the underside of the brain, the skull base, or the top few vertebrae of the spinal column. Because this is such a difficult area to see and reach, skull base surgery is done by a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure in which instruments are inserted through the natural openings in the skull—the nose or mouth—or by making a small hole just above the eyebrow. This type of surgery requires a team of specialists that may include ENT (ear, nose, and throat) surgeons and neurosurgeons.
  • Stroke Interventions - A stroke occurs when blood supply to the brain is interrupted or there is bleeding in the brain. After receiving emergency care, stroke patients can be helped by surgery. Since most strokes occur when a blood vessel in the brain is blocked and blood flow stops or when a vessel in the brain ruptures, a surgical intervention in the skull cavity to clear the clot or fix the rupture is often a lifesaving process.


  • Bladder Surgery - Bladder surgery or bladder suspension Bladder suspension (or bladder neck suspension) surgery is a procedure that can be used to treat urine leakage that occurs when a person sneezes, laughs, or coughs -- a condition called stress incontinence. Childbirth, as well as hormonal changes that come with menopause, can cause a woman to lose muscle tone along the pelvic floor. That can lead to stress incontinence.
  • Nephrectomy - Nephrectomy is a surgical procedure to remove all or part of a kidney. A nephrectomy may be performed to treat kidney cancer or to remove a seriously damaged or diseased kidney. In a donor nephrectomy, the surgeon removes a healthy kidney for transplant into a person who needs a functioning kidney.
  • Kidney Transplant - Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage renal disease. Kidney transplantation is typically classified as deceased-donor (formerly known as cadaveric) or living-donor transplantation depending on the source of the donor organ. Living-donor renal transplants are further characterized as genetically related or non-related transplants, depending on whether a biological relationship exists between the donor and recipient.
  • Laparoscopic Partial - It is partial Nephrectomy which provides patients with a safe and effective way to remove a small renal tumor, while preserving the remainder of the kidney. This is a minimally invasive technique, which provides patients with less discomfort and equivalent results when compared to the traditional open surgery.
  • Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection - PLND has a role in the treatment of several genitourinary cancers but is most commonly used in bladder cancer and prostate cancer. Others include urethral cancer and penile cancer. PLND has an additional role in the management of gynecologic cancers and other pelvic malignancies. While the anatomic approach is similar, the focus of this article is urologic indications.
  • Prostatic Surgery - A radical prostatectomy means an operation to remove the whole prostate gland. It is a common operation for prostate cancer. The operation used to be called total prostatectomy. A specialist surgeon removes the prostate through a cut made in your abdomen or between the testicles and the back passage. The aim of this type of surgery is to cure the cancer.
  • Radical Nephrectomies - Radical nephrectomy is the treatment of choice for localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In certain circumstances, radical nephrectomy is also indicated to treat locally advanced RCC and metastatic RCC. With the advent and increasingly mainstream use of abdominal CT scanning and ultrasound imaging in recent years for various abdominal and, occasionally, chest complaints, incidental detection of RCC has increased in asymptomatic patients.
  • Ureterolithotomy - Ureterolithotomy refers to the open or laparoscopic surgical removal of a stone from the ureter. Today in the United States, ureterolithotomy is seldom performed given the advent and rise of minimally invasive procedures for fragmentation and removal. Minimally invasive options are now preferable and include extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and endoscopic techniques such as ureteroscopy (URS) with laser lithotripsy and stone basketing, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).
  • Kidney Removal - Kidney removal, or nephrectomy, is surgery to remove all or part of a kidney. It may involve part of one kidney removed, All of one kidney removed, Removal of one entire kidney, surrounding fat, and the adrenal gland. In these cases, neighboring lymph nodes are sometimes removed.
  • Testicular Surgery - Testicular surgery is used primarily to correct developmental defects, treat infection or trauma, and treat cancer of the testes. It is a group of surgical operations performed on the testicles, is considered major surgery. In all cases, except when the testes are being removed, care must be taken not to damage any of the nerves and blood vessels supplying the testes and associated organs. It may involve removal of the testicles (castration) or the testes (orchiectomy); to treat traumatic injuries of the testicles
  • Urethra Surgery - Congenital urethral strictures (present at birth) are also considered rare. Any inflammation of the urethra resulting from injury, trauma, previous surgery, or infection can cause urethral stricture. Symptoms of urethral stricture can range from no symptoms at all to complete urinary retention.